Sunday, 21 March 2010




Интернэтээр сонин уншиж байгаад Монгол улс маань хахир хүйтэн, их цас, малчдын ба төрийн хувийн болон хувьсгалын бэлтгэл хангалтаас болоод 4 гаран сая малаа энэ өвөл алдаад буйг баталгаажуулж мэдэв. Бид нар бараг л жил болгон л энэ тухай мэдээ сонсдог болоод удаж байнам. Өнөөг хүртэл яагаад юу ч өөрчлөгдөхгүй, яагаад бид юуг нь ч өөрчилж чадахгүй байгаа хэрэг вэ. Өдгөөгөөс бараг 6 жилийн өмнө би зорьж байгаад энэхүү асуудлаар буюу “Mongolian animal husbandry sector and its future” гэсэн сэдвээр Австралид мастерийн дипломаа бичин хамгаалж байсан юм. Файлаа ухаж байгаад тухайн үед бичиж байсан дипломын ажлын сүүлийн бүлэг буюу дүгнэлт саналын хэсгийг блог дээрээ оруулмаар санагдав. Яг одоогийн нөхцөлд зудын эсрэг миний хийж чадах ганц зүйл юм даа харь орноос. Энэхүү ажлын literature review хэсгийг би нилээд дээр мөн блог дээрээ оруулж байсныг эндээс үншиж болно. Бас мичин жилийн зуд ба нарны идэвхжил хооронд харилцаа уялдаа бий эсэхийг судлах гэж додомдож байсныг эндээс мөн уншиж болно. Аль алинийг нь харьцуулаад харвал миний юу хэлэх гээд байгаа талаар жаахан ч гэсэн ойлголт авах болов уу.  


There are over a half million stakeholders in the Mongolian agricultural sector and livestock still plays a significant role in the Mongolian economy. But traditional nomadic livestock handling makes it dependent upon nature and it sees herders ‘natural prisoners’. Some of the major agricultural changes, which involve the land using system, technology revolution, an increase in intensification and commercialization, resulted in changes to the herders’ level of productivity and income.

A market economy encourages herders to be business-oriented; however, this system resulted in the rapid increase of the number of livestock and overgrazing. In other words, a market economy pushes herders to act environmentally unfriendly and not socially productive.

Mongolian herders and farmers should become a business-oriented operation and create an agribusiness in Mongolia. There is such potential in Mongolia but lack of business experience, equipment, and financial ability could fail or delay such a move.

The increasing number of livestock which resulted in degradation of pastureland, natural disaster, lack of business management, the land using system challenges nomadic Mongolian herders to change their traditional extensive farming technique to cope with a market system which Mongolia only introduced over the last fourteen years.

One of the ways to solve these problems is to move towards semi-intensive and intensive methods. This method requires herder to have better land management, advanced technology, and integrated agriculture. It is needless to say that herders will choose intensive farming methods only if it costs less than their traditional extensive style and risk.

If the land privatization policy works successfully in Mongolia, the land will be considered the real asset and herders will be able to make its value for them. Banking and financial services need herders to cope with a market economy.

Summing up, a market economy pushes Mongolian nomadic herders to focus on not size of the land but management of the land and not quantity of animals but quality of animals.

Recommendations for stakeholders

  • The government needs to attempt to increase productivity (quality not quantity) of the animal husbandry sector through a host of programs, intensives, and incentives. The pasture management techniques need to be discussed. In other words, to develop animal husbandry as a modern intensive sector with consideration for its nomadic character and create modern procession industry for animal raw materials or invest substantial amounts of money in local animal raw material processing industries to protect the market from Chinese traders. It is suggested that Mongolians cannot copy foreign farming style directly because of the different lifestyle; harsh weather and some foreigners do not have a similar understanding of how a local resource works and what rules and norms others share 
  • The government should maintain the viability of rural communities, not only to support the animal husbandry sector but also to alleviate and prevent further social problems in urban areas. The government should ensure consistent development of the infrastructure sectors and focus attention on projects designed at improving energy supply, development of roads, and railway and communication systems in rural area. Such moves will create efficient and cost-effective marketing and distribution channels to improve returns for animal husbandry participants and enhanced food security for the nation because providing roads for transporting livestock and improving water supplies could increase net output from the pastoral industry and the Mongolian economy would benefit from making these improvements
  • Develop intensified cattle and sheep feeding and classify them as meat, milk, wool, and cashmere. Eventually, to integrate crop and livestock production to create a more efficient farming system and avoid total dependence on nature 
  • To improve appropriate laboratory technology, such as testing and research facilities, for the development of modern herders and to establish an intensive animal husbandry system, adapted to the natural conditions and characteristics of Mongolia and to upgrade agricultural equipment and related materials as well as to develop biotechnology 
  • To attract foreign investors into the Mongolian animal husbandry sector and to encourage foreign agricultural companies to license their technology to Mongolia 
  • To develop financial institutions such as insurance companies, local banks, and market information centres and teach herders how to use them 
  • To educate Mongolian herders about market economy, farming practice, and intensive farming systems

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